Fibre Optic Cables

Fibre Optic Cables

Onshore Application Cables


- Fibre Optic Cables

Considering growing technology development, wherever we talk about advanced telecommunication systems, security systems, TV and internet, we also take Fiber Optic into consideration.

What is Optical Fiber?

Optical Fibers are long fragile fibers made of pure glass having thickness about men hair diameter. When optical fiber cores integrated together, they are called fiber optic cable and used to transmit optical signals in various distances. Fiber Optic Cables are applied in various industries such as telecommunication, data transmission systems, medical, engineering and technical services.

If you look at an optical fiber you can see the following parts:

  • Core: Core is the main central part of an optical fiber made of glass that light moves in it.
  • Cladding Layer: Cladding Layer is a buffer surrounded fiber optic central core and cause light reflection into the core.
  • Protective Coating: Protective Coating is a plastic coating protects optical fibers against moisture and damages.

Hundreds or thousands of these optical fibers are put together to make a fiber optic cable. Theses optical fibers are protected by an outer cover called jacket or sheath.

Different kinds of Fiber Optics:

      1-  Single Mode Fiber Optic: This kind of fibers have small cores (diameter about 10x5.3 (-4) inch or 9 micron) and can lead infrared laser light inside themselves.

      2-  Multi Mode Fiber Optic: This kind of fibers have larger cores (diameter about 10x5.2 (-3) inch or 62.5 micron) and send infrared light from optical diodes called LEDs into themselves.

Some of fiber optics are made of plastic. These fibers have large cores (diameter of 0.04 inch or 1m) and lead visible red light sent from LEDs (wavelength equals to 650 Nm).

Fiber Optic Operation Manner:

Suppose you want to flash a strip of light directly along a corridor. Light will move easily along straight lines and there will be no problem. Now if the corridor is not straight and has some carves along it, how can we lead the light to the end of corridor?

In this case we can use a mirror putting in curve spots deflecting the light into suitable direction. What about if the corridor is so winding? We can cover the walls with mirror to trap the light so that it jumps from one side to the other along the corridor. This is exactly what happens in a fiber optic.

In a fiber optic, light is jumping from one side to the other side based on a rule called internal reflection by using mirror wall covered the core and moves along the core.

As mirror layer around the core do not absorb light, light wave can move for a long distance. However, some of optical signals will be weakened during movement along the fiber because of impurities exist inside the glass. Signal weakening level depends on the glass purity level used inside the fiber and also length of light wave moving inside the fiber.

In order to know how fiber optics is used in communication systems, let’s take a look at a film or document related to World War II. Suppose two navy ships are crossing together and they need to communicate with each other, while it’s not possible to use radio or the sea is stormy. One of the ships’ captains sends a message to the seaman on the deck. The seaman on the other ship gets this Morse message, translates it and sends it to the captain (seaman of the second ship react the same way).

Now suppose each of these two ships is is in one corner of the ocean and thousands miles far from together and there is a fiber optic communication system between them.

Fiber optic communication systems consist of the following sections:

Transmitter: Produces light signals and converts them to code.

Fiber Optic: Leads optical signals to far distances.

Optical Booster: It may be necessary for reinforcing optical signals (sending signals to far distances).

Optical Receiver: Receives optical signals and decodes it.

Transmitter:

Role of transmitter is like a seaman sending messages from deck of message transmitter ship. Transmitter turns on or off the light producing tools in appropriate intervals.

Practically, transmitter is connected to fiber optic and it is even possible to have a lens for focusing light into fiber. Power of laser ray is more than LEDs but by reducing or increasing temperature, their light would be different and they are more expensive too. Common wavelengths used are: 850 Nm, 1300 Nm, and 1550 Nm. (infrared and spectrum invisible wavelengths)

Optical Booster:

As it was said before, light is weekend while passing through fiber (especially in long distances more than half mile or about 1 kilometer like Sub Sea Cables). So one or more than one optical booster should be connected to the cable so that reinforce the weakened light. An optical booster has fiber optics with special cover. After entering this optical booster, the weakened light would be reinforced affected by this special cover and also the laser light radiated on this cover. Molecules on this cover will produce new powerful optical signals due to laser radiation, which characteristics is same as light entering booster. Actually, optical booster is some sort of laser amplifier for the light entering it.

Optical Receiver:

Optical receiver acts like a seaman on deck of message receiver ship. This receiver takes optical signals, decodes them and produces proper electrical signals for sending to user computer, television, or telephone. This receiver uses photocell or Photo diode for receiving and detecting input light.


Petro Kavan Pouya Co. will provide Fiber Optic Cables you need in various types from Cavicel Company – a well known cable manufacturer – and guarantee them for 12 to 18 months.

Various types of Fiber Optics supplied by Petro Kavan Pouya Co. as official agent of Cavicel Company are as follow:

Fiber:

  • Single mode
    • Single mode step-index Fiber
    • Multi Mode
      • Multimode Step-index Fiber
      • Multimode Graded-index Fiber

Reinforcing elements:

  • Traction central elements
  • Traction peripheral elements

Construction

  • Concentric
  • Longitudinal

Fiber Coating

  • Tight Protection
  • Semi- Tight Protection
  • Loose Protection

Protection against water penetration (Water Blocking-WB)

  • Jelly Filled
  • Dry

Sheaths and outer Sheath

  • PVC
  • Polyethylene
  • Polypropylene
  • Polyamide
  • Polyurethane
  • XLPE
  • Fluoropolymer FEP
  • Fluoropolymer ETFE
  • Hytrel
  • Peek
  • Kapton
  • Technopolymer LSZH
  • Thermoplastic Rubber
  • LSZH

Armoring and Protections

  • A1       Galvanized Steel Wire Braid
  • A2       Aramide Yarn Armor
  • A3       Corrugated Steel Tape
  • A4       Polyamide protection
  • A5       Glass Yarn Armor
  • A6       Steel Tape Armor
  • A7       Steel Wire Armor
  • A8       Copolymer  Coated Aluminum Tape
  • A9       HI-PACK

LC             Lead Sheath

Variety of fiber optic products

  • Tight Cables
    • Simplex
      • Micro Simplex
      • Simplex
  • Duplex Multitight Distribution
    • Duplex Zip-Cord
    • Duplex Double Sheath
  • Multifibre Breakout
  • Loose Buffered Cables
    • Single Tube
    • Multi Tube
    • Fire Resistant Loose Buffered Cables
      • Single Tube
      • Multi Tube


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